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Sunday, May 1, 2016

Candles and agriculture

Thursday, December 15, 2011

(Photo)
As the holiday season is in full swing, you may have begun to notice that many individuals are lighting candles.

Candles can serve many different purposes in life and can bring a great deal of warmth to those in need of heat.

When you look at a candle, you may not realize that they have a strong connection with agriculture.

Many individuals have been accredited with the creation of candles, and there have been many agricultural products used to make candles. The first candles used by the Ancient Egyptians were rushlights or torches made by soaking the core of reeds in melted animal fat.

Wax made from indigenous insects combined with seeds and rolled rice paper was used to make the candles utilized by the early Chinese.

In comparison, the wax extracted from tree nuts were used in Japan and wax made by boiling in the fruit of the cinnamon tree was used in India.

Tallow (or animal fat) was primarily used by early Western cultures to make candles. It wasn't until the Middle Ages that individuals in Europe became to use beeswax instead. There were many advantages of beeswax over tallow since it burned pure, did not have a smoky flame and emitted a sweet smell.

Another alternative to using tallow and beeswax came when colonial women began to use berries from the bayberry bush to make candles. Candles made from bayberry bushes produce a sweet-smell and burned clean like beeswax.

However, it was extremely tedious to get the wax from the bayberries.

One of the biggest changes in candle making came in the 1850s when chemists learned how to efficiently separate the waxy substance from petroleum and refine it.

This substance was called paraffin wax and was odorless when burned. It was economical to produce and a big leap forward for the candle-making industry.

With plants grown to produce the wax, extracting wax from animal fat, utilizing bees wax and now using paraffin wax to make candles, you can see the numerous links candles have within the agricultural industry.

One final link came in the 1990s when U.S. agricultural chemists began to utilize soybean wax for candles. Soybean wax is softer and is a slower burning wax when compared to paraffin wax.

This holiday season, when you are lighting up your candles, remember that they are deeply connected to agriculture.

As you light them, remember to stay safe by always using a candleholder specifically designed for candle use and trimming candlewicks to one-quarter inch before lighting or re-lighting them.

As always, if you have any questions or would like information on any agriculture, horticulture, or natural resource topic, then please contact your local Purdue Extension Office at 448-9041 in Clay County or 812-829-5020 in Owen County, or reach me directly at smith535@purdue.edu.

Purdue University is an equal opportunity/equal access/affirmative action institution.

Upcoming opportunities available to you through Purdue Extension include:

* Dec. 23 -- Extension Office closed, holiday,

* Dec. 26 -- Extension Office closed, holiday,

* Jan. 2 -- Extension Office closed, holiday, and

* Jan. 5 -- 2012 Illiana Vegetable Growers' School, 8 a.m.-4 p.m. (CST), Schererville, Ind. Cost is $20. Register by calling 219-755-3240.